your solution of Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev search giving you solved answers for the same. For thousands of year these ghats have been the centre for religion, culture and commerce, offering an unrivaled panorama for visitors to the city. Almost like Don Quixote in Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. If you want Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev (v) Indian philosophers conceived the idea of splitting an atom. of Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC, the answers and examples explain the meaning of chapter in the best manner. The government treasury was filled with bronze or copper coins. just for education and the Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev images and diagram are even better than Byjus! The great Bahmani king, Firuz (1397–1422), for example, encouraged botany, geometry, and logic. 4) He encouraged the pursuit of Astronomy and built an observatory near Daulatabad. (ix) Famous alchemist- Nagarjuna -Awas bom in Gujarat in 931 AD & was blessed with power of changing base metals into gold & extracting “Elixir of lifc”→ also wrote Rasaratnakara, a book on chemistry in form of dialogue between him & Gods. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. However the people were asked to shift. Both (a) & (b)ExplanationYukti-kalpataru specifies one class of ships called agramandira (because they had their cabins towards the prows), as eminently adapted for naval warfare (rane kale ghanatyaye). in the north of Karnataka and the interregnum of Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan(1761-1799 C.E.) Rasaratnakara 3. (iii) Algebra & concept of zero originated here. Peasants unwilling and unable to pay tax, fled away from the villages and Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq took harsh measures to capture and punish them. using search above. He recruited one lakh soldiers for this purpose and paid them one year’s salary in advance. A. TakshilaB. Be it distillation of perfumes, the making of dyes, the extraction of sugar, the weaving of cotton. Hence, there was a good deal of discontent. He was compelled to abdicate in favour of his brother, Ahmad Shah-I, who is called a saint (wali) on account of his association with the famous sufi saint Gesu Daraz. VarahamihiraC. this is your one stop solution. Transfer of the capital from Delhi to Devagari (Daultabad) has the most controversial step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Secondly his creation of Department of Agriculture for the purpose of Large Scale cultivation of lands for surplus production was a welcomed step. An astronomical observation post was established by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. (i), (ii) and (iv)C. (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv)D. (iii) and (iv)ExplanationIndia also has a fair share in enriching the world’s material culture. (viii) Best evidences of Indian metallurgy- Iron pillar of Mehrauli in Delhi & idol of Gautama Buddha in Sultanganj, Bihar → have not caught rust. (vii) Lilavati- translated into Persian by Faizi. (a) Vasco-da- Gama (b) Don Almaida (c) Albuquerque (d) Duplex He could have tried more to improve it. Token Currency (A. D. 1329-30) The age of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq is considered a very significant epoch in … Astronomical charts were referred as Zij. unlike his MODERN COUNTER PART, and the ‘TUGHLUQ REFORMS’ were not the part of any Machiavellian-Koudillya thanthra (Chanakya Thanthra ). Firoz Shah Tughaq established observation posts at Delhi. A. RhinoplastyB. To Study Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC Though the Hindu raja of Karajal accepted the Suzerinty of Delhi, but considering to the amount of loss, it can be described that the Karajal expedition was an unsuccessful adventure of Sultan. (viii) Jyotisa part of Aryabhattiya- deals with astronomical definitions, method of determining true position of planets, movement of Sun & Moon and calculation of eclipses. He was interested also in astronomy, and in 1407 started work on an observatory near Daulatabad. 2) He was called as Wali for his association with Sufi Gesu Daraz 1463 - 1482. (vi) Progress from Bronze Age to Iron Age- made great contribution in metallurgy. Shady trees were planted on both sides of the road. Observatories were built at Damascus and Baghdad as early as the 9th–10th century ce. His Khurasan project was the first of them. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq next to Alluddin Khilzi was the greatest sultan of Delhi who is best remembered for his bold experiments and innovative thought in the field of administration as well as in agriculture. The ghats on the great Ganga riverfront at Banaras are unquestionably the city's most iconic and celebrated image. Akbar the Great's Tomb and Fort When he was inspecting an elephant parade standing on a pavilion at Tughluqabad, the Pavilion collapsed and the Sultan along with his second son Muhammad Khan crushed under it and died. Nobody was allowed to stay at Delhi. After a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he realized the fact that just as he could not control the South from Delhi in the same way he could not control North from Daulatabad. Secondly as Devagiri was situated at a central place so the administration of the north and the south could be possible. Only (i)B. (xi) Ain-i-Akbari- “regulation of perfume office” of Akbar. (ii) Book Siddhanta Shiromani is divided into four sections:- Lilavati (dealing with Arithmetic)- Beejganita (dealing with Algebra)- Goladhyaya (about spheres)- Grahaganita (mathematics of planets. The era of practical and more rational cure to diseases emerged around 600 BC. It was not always possible to operate army from Delhi for the occupation of Southern states. He was very kind and generous to the poor and pandits and was very unkind and cruel. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s predecessors depended on gold and silver coins as medium of exchange. (vi) Bijaganita- ‘the other mathematics’ as Bija means ‘another’ or ‘second’ & Ganita means mathematics → it was recognised as a parallel system of computation. As a ruler he had the every right to increase tax in-order-to meet the day to day expenditures of the country. He ordered his courtiers, officers, leading men including Sufi saints as well as all people of Delhi to shift to Devgiri. He did it in-order-to introduce a uniform standard of land revenue as well as to assess every village of his kingdom. But he was proved to be a big failure as a ruler particularly with regards to his different experiments. The city was abandoned by the Delhi rulers due to the lack of water supply in the area. Sir Woolreley Haig has accepted the version of Ibn Batuta, Isami also says that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq resolved to break-up the power of the citizens of Delhi and therefore, decided to transfer the capital. The fort of Daulatabad came under the new Sultanate of Ahmadnagar, which covered western Maharashtra, and recruited Maratha chieftains in its army. UPSC Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev Summary and Exercise are very important for It was definitely a praise-worthy step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. He built observatories at Daulatabad; According to Faristha, he married Deva Rai's daughter; He built the city of Firozabad, situated on the bank of river Bhima; He was a great Calligra-pher; Ahmad Shah Wali (1422-1436) He shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1424; He was called 'Wali' because he was a great follower of Gesudheraj; When diplomats met to form the United Nations in 1945, one of the things they discussed was setting up a global health organization. In spite of this he was misunderstood by his subjects. These coins Barani says, were heaped up outside the fort and remained lying there for many years.- These above experiments not only brought wastage of money but also affected the prestige of the Sultan. They were asked to grow different crops in rotation. Mehendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah developed an astronomical instrument called Yantraja. (ii) Also introduced negative numbers as debts & positive numbers as fortunes.The concept of Zero or Shunya- is derived from concept of a void, which existed in Hindu Philosophy hence derivation of a symbol for it.- influenced South-east asian culture through Buddhist concept of Nirvana ‘attaining salvation by merging into the void of eternity’.- 9th century AD, Mahaviracharya wrote Ganit Sara Sangraha, first textbook on arithmetic in present day form, which mentions the current method of finding Lowest common multiple. (viii) Apastamba (second century BC) → introduced concepts of practical geometry involving acute angles, obtuse angles & right angles. He was a great soldier and great scholar in Arabic, Persian, Kannada and Telugu. But he was misunderstood by the people. WHO’s Constitution came into force on 7 April 1948 – a date we now celebrate every year as World Health Day. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. (i) and (iii)B. (xi )Court astronomer of Feroz shah Bahmani, Mahendra Suri, invented an astronomical instrument known as Yantaraja. A. SulvasutraB. (v) Around 600 BC- era of practical & more rational cure(vi) Takshila & Varanasi- centres for medicinal learning. Education in Karnataka through the ages by Jyotsna Kamat Education Among Muslims . The army suffered terribly and we are told by Barani that out 10, 000 army only 10 horse-men could return to Delhi to tell the story of the disaster. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. (xiv) He said presence of termites (Deemak) & plants could indicate presence of water in that particular area. So his transfer of capital with the entire population of Delhi was a blunder. As regards to his foreign expeditions, he was seen as a great failure. According to Standly Lane-poole, “Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.”. )(iii) Introduced Chakrawat method or cyclic method to solve algebraic equations in his book Lilavati. But this project was dropped because he did not get the help of the Persian emperor who had assured him to help in this mission. Karajal expedition was another mis-judged step of Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq. In order to bring an improvement in agriculture, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq decided to undertake a number of measures and he, therefore established a department of agriculture called Diwan-i-kohi. It was also called Astapada meaning game of eight steps.It finds its mention in Mahabharata where it was played between Kauravas & Pandavas. Introduction of token currency was another bold experiment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Mehendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah developed an astronomical instrument calledYantraja.ParameshvaraandMahabhaskariyawerefamousfamiliesofastronomers and almanac … Ultimately the Sultan incurred a huge financial loss and his reputation as a conqueror hampered much. But Devagiri would be a safe place and almost free from Mongol raids. (ii) Two books were translated in Arabic. EduRev is like a wikipedia A. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ascended the throne just three days after the sudden death of his father, Giyasuddin Tughlaq. (iv) Town planning of Harappa indicates a good knowledge of measurement & geometry. Ahmad Shah. The Mongols under their leader Tarma-Shirin Khan had invaded India and plundered upto Multan and Lahore without any opposition. The inscriptions of this dynasty, as well as those of contemporary kingdoms, the Hoysala, Kakatiya dynasty and Western Chalukyas call them Seunas. (xii) Mother of Noorjahan- discovered attar of roses. No doubt the Doab region between the Ganga and Yamuna was highly fertile and production was more than any other part of the country, but hike in the tax came at a wrong time and assessment of revenue was not based on the factual report. Several factors prompted him to take this decision. perfect preparation. Firoz Shah Bahmani wrote commentaries on Shariat and Quran. Some of the Sanskrit terminologies used during ancient times for various parts of the ship are: SHIP BUILDING AND NAVIGATION(i) Sanskrit & Pali literature- mention of ship building & navigation activities. (xii) Sawai Jai Singh MEDICINE (i) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of medicine & were given divine status. Again the officers appointed in this work were corrupt and lacked experience. Among regional rulers, Firuz shah Bahamani set up an observatory at Daulatabad. (v) Medieval period- Narayan Pandit produced works of mathematics like Ganitakaumudi & Bijagan itavatamsa. Considering all those factors he decided to introduce a bronze coin which was to have the same value as the silver tanka. A large number of officers and guards were appointed to look after the project. Further from military point of view, he was an excellent commander and during the time of Sultan Mubarak Shaha Khiliji he was promoted to the rank of the master of the horse from an ordinary soldier. Therefore, another increase in the land revenue tax upto ten percent more in the Doab by the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, definitely created serious peasant discontentment. But on the other hand historians like Gardiner Brown and Dr. Iswari Prasad have described Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq with high sounding words and do not believe that he was suffering from insanity. Question 10:Sushrutasamhita which deals with surgery elaborately discusses? (iv) Five types of parmanu for five different elements. Thirdly Delhi was nearer to the North-Western frontier which was exposed to Mongol invasions. (vii) Sanskrit terminologies for various parts of the ship are:- Anchor of ship - Nava bandhan kilaha- Sail - Vata vastra- Rudder of ship - Jeni pata or karna- Keel of the ship - Nava tala- Compass of the ship - Machayantra or fish machine (in shape of a fish). (iv) Ships were primarily classified into two classes:- Samanya (Ordinary class)- Vishesha (special class)(v) Ordinary class^for sea voyage & had two types of ships:(a) Dirgha type of ship - long and narrow hull(b) Unnata type of ship - higher hull(vi) As per length & position of cabins, ships were classified into:(a) Sarvamandira vessels - cabins extending from one end of deck to another, used for transportation of royal voyage & horses. Failure in both the military expeditions as well as his inability to defend the Mongols made him unpopular. Griffith's objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote … MATHEMATICS(i) Also called Ganita & includes:- Arithmetic (Pattin Ganita/Anka Ganita)- Algebra (Bija ganita)- Geometry (Rekha Ganita)- Astronomy (Khagolshastra)- Astrology (Jyotisa)(ii) Between 1000 BC & 1000 AD- a number of treatise on mathematics were authorised by Indian mathematicians. The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq: While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s character and achievements, historians have strongly differed and have expressed diametrically opposite views. Compass of the ship – Machayantra or fish machine(in the shape of a fish). Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq himself had spent a number of years as prince to occupy and guard the southern states during the time of his father. That is why right from the beginning of his rule; he decided to take some bold reformative measures for the improvement as well as safeguard of the country. (xiii) In field of geology’, hydrology and ecology, the contribution of Varahamihira (Gupta period & one of nine gems in court of Vikramaditya) cannot be forgotten-^his predictions were so accurate that king Vikramaditya awarded him with title of “Varaha”. Even if he had the intention to punish the people of Delhi for their abusing and scandlous letters, he could do so by some other method, but not by physically shifting them to Devagiri, the new capital. (v) Development of metallurgy in India- from Bronze Age. Again in case of his transfer of capital from Delhi to Daulatabad, he displayed his lack of Wit. He abstained himself from drinking in public. Diseases, their pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, treatment, and complications are described in such a depth that it leaves us wondering as to how Sushruta could have developed precise clinical skills simultaneously in all parts of medical science including medicine, surgery, plastic surgery, anaesthesia, ophthalmology, midwifery, genetics, anatomy, and diabetes. Historians like Elphinstone, Edward Thomass, Havell and V.A. ***///] . This made the situation more deplorable. Firoz Shah Bahmani under Hakim Hussain Gilani and Syed Muhammad Kazimi set up an observatory in Daulatabad. The cripple man has put to death while the blind man was tied with the tail of horse and was dragged to Daulatabad where only his one leg reached.”. In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great conqueror; he planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was then ruled by Iraq. This weakness of the Sultan made people feel most insecure. He spent nearly three lakhs of rupees for this mission. WrestlingD. According to Ibn Batuta “A search was made and a blind man and a cripple man were found. Nilakanatha Jyotirvida compiled Tajik, dealing with a large number of Persian technical terms. Bile, 2. (x) Book deals with preparation of liquids (mainly mercury)(xi) He also wrote Uttaratantra, a supplement to Sushruta Samhita and deals with preparation of medicinal drugs.And also wrote four ayurvedic treatises later. (xv) He gave a list of six animals & thirty-six plants which could indicate presence of water. Yukti Kalpa Taru : The treatise gives a technocratic exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding, providing minute details on various types of ships, their sizes along with materials from which they were built. It was due to the failure in different matters he has been called a mad Sultan. Extraction of sugar 3. The true predecessors of the modern observatory were those established in the Islamic world. Batuta says, the citizens of Delhi used to write letters containing abuses and scandals to the Sultan. Though the attempt to make Devagiri a capital failed, it had a number long-range benefit. GeometryExplanationBijaganita was Indian mathematician Bhaskara II's treatise on algebra. However Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq has been criticized for this transfer of capital. His increase of tax in the fertile Doab region was not at all in-correct. NagarjunaExplanationNagarjuna was an Indian metallurgist and alchemist. Assumed the title of ‘Haindava Dharmoddharak’ Died in 1680. The department’s main work was to find out uncultivated lands and make all sorts of arrangements for the cultivation of horse lands. A huge amount of forged coins entered into market and government treasury as those were minted secretly by private parties. 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