CAS consisted of five subscales to measure multiple viewpoints of apathy. Pimouguet C, Sitta R, Wittwer J, Hayes N, Petit-Monéger A, Dartigues JF, Helmer C. BMC Geriatr. The items are rated on a 4‐point Likert scale from 1 (not at all characteristic) to 4 (very characteristic). Each individual’s probability of class membership was also estimated together with the overall model so that they can be placed into the appropriate class. Items from the clinical LARS that were deemed to be applicable to healthy people were also adapted. Our data suggest that there may be particular subtypes of apathy that are more likely to co-occur with these symptoms. The BA subscale focused on the individual’s tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour. We then labelled these classes according to their profile on apathy subtypes: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t007. We briefly summarize key correlational results here in text (details in Table 5 and Fig 2). 2008;14(3):183-6. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2007.07.015. Data from a new group of 479 people recruited via online adverts and Prolific Academic (www.prolific.ac) was used for the analysis (for demographic information see Table 2). Overall, these findings indicated that the AMI had good construct validity. [13] as a domain of apathy during the development of the LARS, although it is not specified within other cognitive-behaviour-emotion frameworks of apathy [1, 2]. Internal consistency, item reliability, and between-rater reliability were high. Participants were asked to self-rate each item on a five-point Likert scale by deciding how true that statement was based on the past two weeks of their life. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. The behaviourally/socially apathetic experienced the greatest depression and fatigue while the generally motivated were most hedonic. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with promax rotation was conducted in MPlus [22] to examine the latent structure of this 51-item apathy questionnaire. The SM subscale contained items that examine a person’s engagement in social interactions. here. The emotionally apathetic people were also more hedonic than the generally apathetic class (Fig 4B). Model fit was assessed using RMSEA, SRMR, and Comparative Fit Index (CFI). Furthermore, as data collection for RUN DMC is still ongoing, no data on progression to dementia were available beyond 2015, so only 2011 AES scores were analysed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of evaluation between families and nurses in assessing patients’ apathy. A small number (2.1%), on the other hand, scored higher than the global mean on all AMI subscales. This is supported by positive associations found between the AMI BA subscale with DAS (Dimensional Apathy Scale [14]) executive and behavioural/cognitive initiation but not the emotional subscale. Method: Also, using abnormality cutoffs, 58% in this group were impaired on at least two apathy subscales, the most common of which was Executive and Initiation apathy, with only 37% displaying global apathy over all DAS subscales and 5% displaying one apathy subscale. With the patient-based evaluations, no differences were found among the AD, MCI and control groups. [28] and scored responses using a 4-point Likert-style instead (1–4: 1 = ‘Strongly Disagree’, 4 = ‘Strongly Agree’) with higher scores reflecting greater hedonic tone. and > 2 S.D. Approximately 65% of the inter-correlations in our data were low (< 0.20), hence, we adopted the relaxed CFI cut-off of 0.80 while ensuring that the cut-offs for RMSEA and SRMR were < 0.08. We hypothesized that, after developing our new index, we would identify distinct subtypes of apathy in the general population and that these subtypes would be differentially associated with depression, anhedonia and fatigue. Objective: This dissertation includes three projects that study care environments and apathy in dementia as well as measures of activity. [Apathy in Parkinson's disease: clinical features, mechanisms and assessment]. Post-hoc comparisons showed that the behaviourally/socially apathetic class were significantly more depressed and fatigued than the emotionally apathetic and generally motivated classes. Participants were the same as in Study 2. The results also indicated that AD patients had poor awareness of their emotional blunting and lack of initiative. A value of RMSEA and SRMR less than 0.08 is generally considered to be reasonable [24]. No, Is the Subject Area "Fatigue" applicable to this article? 2006 Mar;21(3):259-65. doi: 10.1002/gps.1457. Theoretical accounts have proposed that apathy is a multidimensional construct which actually covers motivation within dissociable domains: cognitive, emotional/affective and behavioural [2, 12]. To interpret each class, we compared the conditional response means with the overall sample means on each AMI subscale (Table 7, Fig 3). The Benjamini and Hochberg method was used to control for false discovery on multiple comparisons [31]. They showed adequate values, indicating acceptable internal consistency (αoverall = 0.77, αBA = 0.79, αSM = 0.75, αES = 0.75). BA relates to an individual’s tendency to self-initiate goal-directed behaviour, SM examines a person’s engagement of social interactions and ES probes an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection. (A) 3D scatterplot illustrating the distribution of each healthy individual’s mean rating along the three AMI subscales. The Irritability subscale includes poor temper control, verbal and physical aggression, behavioral inflexibility, and … All post-hoc comparison differences were significant at p < 0.05 (Emotionally apathetic: BDI mean = 8.0, SD = 8.8, SHAPS mean = 47.6, SD = 5.6, MFIS mean = 20.9, SD = 14.0; Behaviourally/socially apathetic: BDI mean = 16.2, SD = 11.8, SHAPS mean = 45.7, SD = 5.8, MFIS mean = 34.9, SD = 17.6; Generally motivated: BDI mean = 9.7, SD = 9.0, SHAPS mean = 50.4, SD = 4.9, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 17.3; Generally apathetic: BDI mean = 12.8, SD = 13.0, SHAPS mean = 42.3, SD = 6.6, MFIS mean = 29.3, SD = 26.7). Patients were also administered the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R). Using the most rigorous psychometric procedures, we then dissected out the different factors that comprise the AMI and determined whether depression, anhedonia and fatigue are related to distinct profiles of apathy. Conclusions: Participants completed the AMI to confirm the proposed three-factor structure. Whilst apathy is a common syndrome associated with altered motivation [2, 12], it is also frequently comorbid with other states which may have symptoms of reduced motivation, particularly depression, anhedonia and fatigue [3, 4, 15, 16]. Comparing these two subscales to the conceptualisation of apathy by Levy and Dubois [2] suggests that the BA subscale likely encompasses the ‘cognitive’ and ‘auto-activation’ aspects, while the ES domain appears to correspond more to the ‘emotional-affective’ subtype. By contrast, the ES subscale contained items that probe an individual’s feelings of positive and negative affection, which seems similar to the emotional blunting often observed in some patients with apathy [37]. Descriptive statistics of these additional measures are provided in Table 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169938.t003. Results: When compared to healthy controls, patients showed a significant increase in apathy on the Initiation subscale, and were significantly less apathetic on the Emotional subscale. Apathy s rating scales are useful tools for this and they are important to evaluate future therapeutic inter-ventions. Cognitive deficits due to damage or disease affecting frontal lobe systems are well known to clinical neuroscientists. AMI total score showed positive correlations with existing assessments of apathy: DAS total (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) and AES (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). This is an 18-item scale that addresses behavioral, emotional, and cognitive aspects of apathy. Future longitudinal studies would benefit from investigating how particular profiles of apathy are risk factors for the development of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. Robert P, Manera V, Derreumaux A, Ferrandez Y Montesino M, Leone E, Fabre R, Bourgeois J. J Med Internet Res. The Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) was developed by Marin (1991) as a method for measuring apathy resulting from brain-related pathology. He defined apathy as “lack of motivation not attributable to diminished level of consciousness, cognitive impairment, or emotional distress.” (Marin, 1991). The scale ranged from 0–4 (with 0 = ‘completely untrue’, 4 = ‘completely true’). As a result, the mechanisms underlying variability in apathy are still poorly understood. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. The findings presented here show for the first time that apathy in the healthy population can be dissected into four subtypes: ‘emotionally apathetic’, ‘behaviourally/socially apathetic’, ‘generally motivated’ and ‘generally apathetic’. Given this relationship between motivation and reward, we predicted that anhedonia and apathy would be linked. We observed that the AMI SM was correlated with both the BA and ES subscales. Key Descriptions. 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